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The invention of IPL safety glasses of the cascade between t

At the beginning of the summer 2015, with Zhu Bangfen in Tsinghua garden the professor chats, the experience that Professor Zhu suggests I combine myself is " physics " the magazine writes an article. Actually, " physics " it is the journal that I like to browse more than 30 this years all the time. Then, assented willingly of Professor Zhu offer. 1 inchoate reviewing speaks of the source with physics, should chase after Zuo to arrive 1978, in those days I am 15 years old, just fastened undergraduate course to be read into Zhejiang university physics. Although be opposite,physics has fun at in those days, but not clear what should do in the future. Age little experience is shallow, not was sure good to go to the United States to read the graduate student's opportunity. After the university graduates, studying Nanjing university physics is agglomeration condition theory major is read grind, the adviser is at that time distinguished Professor Cai Jianhua. But before long, professor Cai leaves Nanjing college, went to Shanghai traffic university, we stay behind partly south big Cai Jiao gives a student, enjoying unrestrained study and research life. Professor Cai gave me to study the metal exceeds the general orientation of crystal lattice transport, let imagine at freedom here, in the environment of aleatoric play. Of course, in that time, the teacher of cautious and conscientious is full of all round, assiduous and outstanding classmate, the environment of study discussion lets person longing up. The course that teachs in Lizheng for instance gave me the training with solid theory rigorous respect. I often also look for Ma Gongru of senior fellow apprentice to chat, consult a problem. Still have even if with the Liu Xiaojia of Shanghai metallurgy place and Mr Lei Xiaolin built cooperation at that time. I begin relatively independent research truly begin from doctoral paper, the title that I draft to write at that time is semiconductor the collective that exceeds system of crystal lattice electron is aroused as academic as transport. Because Mr Cai Jianhua is visited in Australia, communication is no-go in those days also take time, I was done first with respect to oneself write a letter to persuade Mr Cai again. After Mr Cai examines my paper proposal later, agreed with my task. I am by 1987 passed doctoral paper to answer differentiate graduates. Graph 1 article author Professor Yang Ruiqing reviews Chinese strong reforming and opening before long that time, lack has the researcher of experience and deepness, I at that time although have some of idea that starts formerly, but not clear how to undertake more development and significant research. My doctoral paper still should have a lot of spaces to rise, there is some of regret presumably now. I went to job of college of Chinese science and technology after graduation, experience there distinctive opening is mixed free atmosphere, also recall the world outside polity check. Before long, went to Canadian Toronto university physics is short-term job, pursue the academic research that concerns with him doctor paper. The day that the years of 2 Canada just went Canada, english communication capacity is small, the research that I fasten in Toronto university physics is not successful, also feel meaning of it doesn't matter, want to be changed somewhat. Find at that time how old electronic engineering department and physical related J.M. Professor Xu, he is at the beginning of 1990 gave me to do postdoctoral work in electronic engineering department, the brushstroke Canada postdoctoral fund of application also reachs the designated position subsequently, such my research begin to turn into physics and the way that application ties. Professor Xu mind is very active, gave me to study direction and task any better in the begining. After making investigation and study one time, discover a few topic I cannot continue, a few tasks had been done by other, but having two way is very new, I can undertake significant exploration. It is the coupling of electronic wave guide that analogy guides at light-wave, pursue the research of this respect, let me study the theory of smooth wave guide and the physical idea that involve, apply on the development of theory of electronic wave guide, understood their similar sex and difference, after be, I was engaged in the research of IPL safety glasses of such as semiconductor increasing useful knowledge and experience. Another is semiconductor quanta trap (Quantum Well, sui of the resonance between the belt of QW) structure is worn, the research of this respect makes I was familiar with system of data of InAs/GaSb/AlSb of semiconductor of the 2nd kind of heterogeneous knot, developed corresponding theory to understand structure of trap of this kind of quanta and concerned experimental phenomenon, it is after the research experience that combines other side, made IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt (the invention of Interband Cascade Laser) . I gave stronger physical base in the experience of Chinese study and research training and refine of experience of substantive work competence, project of electron of Dan Duolun much university fastens postdoctoral experience to make I begin to understand and learn how to do research truly however, and why to do. In the inchoate years of Toronto, organic meeting and Professor Xu spread out quite a few to discuss, let me benefit a lot. The research at the back of this paragraph of period and me needs to understand or elaborate a meaning where to, can solve what problem or have what application, and ask had better have quantified estimation. The research of theory of pure physics of unlike of this kind of research is so abstract, use a requirement actually, settle the need of the problem, the phenomenon that the experiment observes can help the program with student choice and proper abstraction and approach, what may receive experiment and application greatly relatively examine, and do not be like some rationalism to be hanged in sky to be hard to confirm volume of pair of faults, import. The study that I think theory and actual application photograph are united in wedlock and research should fit major person more. 1991, suffer Helm and Allen 1990 year of an article that is published on APL touch, professor Xu and I put forward to use trap of the 2nd kind of quanta (Sui of the resonance between the belt of Type-II QW) structure is worn will achieve child number of the particle between the belt inverts, come true thereby child carry transition IPL safety glasses. This kind of IPL safety glasses is the generation in be based on structure of semiconductor quanta trap child take transition (Intersubband Transitions) , be based on conduction band to carry the semiconductor diode IPL safety glasses of transition to valence unlike convention apparently thereby. The wavelengh of its emissive photon is belong to same conduction band by two (or valence is taken) schism child the energy of the belt differs a decision, can carry regulated quantity child trap layer is thick will control, and the data that does not need a change to make quanta pit. As a result of child the novel property that takes IPL safety glasses, include to be able to be enclothed what normally semiconductor IPL safety glasses is hard to work is medium infra-red wave band, the original concept since it was put forward 1971 by two Russian scientists, attracted a lot of outstanding investigator try every means on the world to come true it. But the scattering of optical phonon is in child allow between the belt, and very fast (leather second measures class) . This makes the efficiency that infuse electron changes into photon very low, and the precondition that achieves IPL safety glasses, namely child the particle number between the belt inverts, also be hard to come true. So it still does not have successful evidence after be put forward 20 years, a lot of people also produced pessimistic view accordingly, abandoned continueing to explore thereby. Xu is taught and I can solve particle to count inverting difficult problem from the principle in the program that offerred 1991. I am very so excited at that time, developed concerned research subsequently, try to contact the unit that has establishment requirement, the hope can start experimental research. At the same time I also think how to overcome the way of phonon scattering in exploration, often pay close attention to and read the research of concerned task and progress, dream one day I can take the lead in coming true child carry transition IPL safety glasses. But reality is, this kind still stays in primitive conceptual draft resolution to get very hard take seriously and supportive. My dream was in by shellfish Er lab 1994 child take the breakthrough on IPL safety glasses to wake up. I face this time is to continue to go after original child the choice of the plan that takes transition IPL safety glasses or additional monarch way. Exploring child when carrying IPL safety glasses, I notice, electronic life is in between the belt in transition process, with child take transition photograph to compare, can have the difference of class of more than 3 amounts, namely the time of the transition between electronic belt, include radiation and blame radiant course, because do not have the scattering of phonon, should grow a lot of. In the article that I wrote 1993 [discussed this difference between them. Although had some of initiative idea, but in implementation of the transition between the area that I did not raise clearly in the article to use structure of trap of the 2nd kind of quanta infra-red IPL safety glasses. Because affection is inertial,basically be still be in child take transition, fail to jump out completely the limitation of original convention and influence. At the same time I also decide, should put forward to be based on plan of the IPL safety glasses between the belt of structure of trap of the 2nd kind of quanta on a professional conference. It is so at the beginning of March 1994, I cast a summary to arrive to wanted held international August in those days on the conference. Because at that time of shellfish Er lab child the job with revolutionary IPL safety glasses of couplet of the sub level that take an amount has not been in April " science " appear in the newspaper, I the caption of that summary and subsequently conference paste report and article remains the IPL safety glasses that focuses Yu Zi to take transition, although the conference reports,with the article the construction that included IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt is mixed discuss. See later " science " on the job of Bell lab, think through period of time, I feel to continue to go after child the IPL safety glasses that carries transition already did not have much great sense, I also do not have an advantage without resource already. From the consideration on research purpose and functional respect, the requirement that how makes the function of IPL safety glasses satisfies each respect to apply should be the most important, is not merely valueing this research is new perhaps not be “ heat ” . Look from physical principle, child the limitation that carry quanta cascade IPL safety glasses and did not cross phonon scattering; And the problem that IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt does not have phonon scattering, and the advantage that has cascade, should meet make property more advantageous in infra-red IPL safety glasses. So the job of my after this basically is centered in the implementation of IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt and development. Here needs compensatory specification, cascade (Cascade) is to be similar to inchoate the ordinal Sui in exceeding crystal lattice to consider is worn (Sequential Tunneling) structure. Because foregoing research focusing are in child take transition glow, cascade structure is right in be mentioned apparently in the research that the importance of infra-red IPL safety glasses and advantage did not await in those day or emphasize. The advantage of cascade structure and importance may be not included the pioneer of those quanta cascade IPL safety glasses inside investigator realises completely in initial stage. For example, the author arrives in the article that referred to discuss IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt technically 1994 " applied physics wall bulletin " (Applied Physics Letters) , but was rejected. Apparent, the person that evaluate fails to realize IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt and the difference that groovy semiconductor takes a IPL safety glasses at that time, ignored the value of cascade. Graph 2 gave out the IPL safety glasses between groovy belt, child IPL safety glasses of the cascade between IPL safety glasses of couplet of the sub level that take an amount and belt the contrast of IPL safety glasses of these 3 kinds of semiconductor. The IPL safety glasses between groovy belt (graph 2(a)) is those who involve the electron that takes in conduction band and price respectively and cavity is ambipolar (Bipolar) parts of an apparatus, among them the division of active quanta trap with many optical generation (Active QW Regions) is pressed carry stream child the means of infuse is equivalent at shunt-wound join. Child IPL safety glasses of couplet of the sub level that take an amount (graph 2(b)) is to involve an electron only (or hole) extremely odd (Unipolar) parts of an apparatus, but its active area is series connection connective. The every infuse electron that this makes cascade IPL safety glasses medium, below voltage, can repeated usage, launch many photon, bring about tall quanta efficiency thereby. Laser of the cascade between the belt (the mixture of both advantage before graph 2(c)) can be regarded as to be united in wedlock (Hybrid) , it uses the 2nd kind between InAs and GaSb to defeat be short of the belt is unoccupied place can take arrange facilitated cascade structure. This plants the 2nd kind to defeat lack the half metal source that taking interface of unoccupied place heterogeneous knot to also can be regarded is generation electron and cavity, if graph 2(c) is perpendicular,dotted line place is shown. The clear to cascade structure acknowledge in document and important discussion are to appear after quanta cascade IPL safety glasses comes true, also be to be in after the author puts forward IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt publicly. Although have not little person,expressed the interest to IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt to me in those days, but do not have cogent Fu Zhu at the action. This may have a variety of reasons, include to suspect and not be clear about it after all to be able to progress what degree. So, know merely or offerring a new think of a way that looks pretty good still is far insufficient. Graph the contrast of IPL safety glasses of 3 kinds of 2 semiconductor (of A) convention ambipolar model (electron and cavity) the IPL safety glasses between the belt; (B) is extremely odd model (only electron or cavity) child carry quanta cascade IPL safety glasses; (Laser of the cascade between the belt of both advantage before C) was united in wedlock. Notice conduction band and price contain chromatic dispersion of contrary arrow of energy — wave to concern, and belong to same conduction band child the 3 development that are in the United States are in the   of relation of chromatic dispersion of arrow of energy — wave that contains likeness the basic idea that had IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt and after putting forward publicly, I go up to undertake the orgnaization of experimental job is contacted conditionally with the world, the plan that hopes they can adopt me gives me working chance. In taking a cascade IPL safety glasses to want to use the 2nd kind of when be based on the compound that contain antimony heterogeneous structure peculiar can take the position to arrange square. This need uses the member that has equipment antimonial cause bundle denotative facilities will come true. The unit that there is this kind of facility on the world in those days is not much, although not regular also meeting uses those who support me still basically do theory at that time so, also the youth of setting of it doesn't matter. Install the gentleman's recommend through light of academic physicist Zhao, mr Zhu Jingwu decides to give support, the center of dimensional vacuum extension that I reach American Houston university to found by Mr Zhu at the beginning of 1995 accordingly allows to study a scientist. In those days Mr Zhu oneself be in administer superconduction center, head denotative center no longer, I am in at that time Professor Bai Xianshen that comes to a center to hold the post of a vice director from shellfish Er lab works in the group. That period funds is more sufficient, the member that the infrastructure that also has some of semiconductor side includes to need bundle denotative equipment, the center wants to extend a few new potential to study a project. So a few people rise jointly the experimental development that began to drive IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt, academy of country of lab of as naval as the United States also research, Canada, Sangdiya (the researcher of Sandia) state laboratory, Bell lab built cooperation. At the beginning of 1997, IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt is proved to be able to produce IPL safety glasses by the experiment for the first time on the world. Although performance of the first parts of an apparatus is bad, but very fast, IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the tape that makes subsequently was improved by big earth, confirmed its a few advantage. The abecedarian brings everybody successfully excitement, also brought honor to Houston university, at the same time be pregnant with is worn I before long leave. It is at the beginning of 1999, I left Houston, went to lab of American army research, California early or late manage is versed in jet propulsion lab (university of horse of carry on one's shoulder of carat of JPL) , Russia (University Of Oklahoma) , continue to drive the research and development of IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt and application, and extend other concerned photoelectricity function parts of an apparatus. Also close with the person during start a company, try to change IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt into commercial product. These processes have of course rise and fall zigzag, however the article should be not told about. Going before JPL, although also be done,measure token, but I basically am the development that considers an idea and integral plan carry out, do design of parts of an apparatus, theory is calculated and analyse. In JPL, I need to build examine the special experiment setting of IPL safety glasses function, after this, I transform from an egghead give priority to with the experiment, have him palm to accuse the researcher of equipment. Nevertheless, often still want to use the knowledge of academic physics and mastery of a skill or technique in the job. For instance, design, analysis and judgement carry a cascade IPL safety glasses, quanta is mechanical it is indispensable. If do not have the accomplishment of academic physics and foundation, the real problem that encounter is very possible inside definitive period inextricability, also do not know how proceed with. Of course, the knowledge that learns during university undergraduate course and graduate student is insufficient, not regular also be geared to the needs of the job. Professional knowledge complements ceaselessly even in working so, learn new mastery of a skill or technique. When should spanning to be restricted with experimental bound theoretically, eye shot becomes more open, also can gain benefit from different respect. More important be, can thorough geography solves the problem in reality, be found out thereby or make feasible solution. Additionally I also experience the difference in theory and experimental job. The need when doing academic research is absorption and quiet, and when doing a test, if already compared adroitness, the operation that can carry a hand enters working state. So, when my mood be agitated cannot when absorption mental work, go doing a test with respect to him arrangement. In JPL, research work wants to be able to be American spaceflight to the task is offerred or develop useful with indispensible technology. Although JPL also encourages researcher to publish a paper, but value research achievement to whether can be used for its place more. My job over is development advanced in infra-red semiconductor IPL safety glasses, its function index should achieve the requirement that interior and exterior client explore to appointing a member. This is different from the standard of general basic research, involves issue spans semiconductor physics, the growth of material, design of quanta parts of an apparatus, preparation, enclose, dependability, etc. The challenge is many sided, our research work can be interstellar to the mankind at the same time exploration is contributed somewhat also is rare opportunity and honor. In the head a few years, our group developed a few sheet in important wave band the model is adjustable IPL safety glasses of the cascade between type belt gives the client that concern try out, got their affirmation and feedback. Next we gained the opportunity that for spark expeditionary task offers IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt. This IPL safety glasses is to explore the methane gas on spark, power of temperature of the power comsumption of technical index such as to it, job, output, stimulate shoot wavelengh, adjustable limits has very firm demand, inside limited at that time time, be impossible to achieve almost. But the choice with the better IPL safety glasses that did not compare us in those days. Because this IPL safety glasses is labelled,have the project of the risk most. This is meant, if our progress short of beforehand a series of milepost of set, the project may be replaced by redundancy scheme at any time. Although pressure is enormous, but motive force also cannot be resisted. The job of early days let our group have clear understanding and preparation, among them the consideration on physics produced crucial effect. To it relevant technicality already was published, this article no longer give uncecessary details. We are in new acquaintance paid the cascade between the area that reachs a requirement IPL safety glasses 2007, among them as “ curiosity date ” spark explores a car one to landed spark 2012, explore methane successfully on spark. The IPL safety glasses when qualification by consign hind, I calculate in the mission of JPL finished, the cant of NASA is “Mission Completed” . Two places hope to recruit me to work in those days. Among them one of it is department of engineering of electron of University Of Oklahoma(OU) . I want to go to an university working very much, because that is freer, agile, him together with also has fun at to education, the hope has more opportunity and youth communication. But OU is located in more conservative city, situation does not have an advantage, the school is mixed in the hardware establishment of respect of semiconductor scientific research the environment lags behind at JPL apparently the unit of level of laboratory of this kind of state, want to make the job that is similar to JPL have challenge sex very much in that. After considering through on-the-spot check and period of time, ask for those who got folk to agree, I accepted university professoriate 2007. Main reason is: The university needs the new research way with significant open up, is not to must make the task of research and development that compares hardware actual strength with national laboratory. The rhythm with conservative slower area also has its profit, working means always does not become to drive plan cursory. OU has the member that I need bundle denotative equipment and the semiconductor device that need basically make installation, I also can purchase a few better instruments with the capital that start, still can pass with outside the inadequacy that the collaboration of the unit will come to make up for and strengthen the school. So I believe to be able to carry on my shoulder or back in Russia carat the horse is broken through again, develop a new phase. After perch, I build the cooperation that teachs research group with physical department very quickly, took the lead in put forward on the world and realizing IPL safety glasses of the cascade between LnAs base band, stimulate theirs shoot wavelengh outspread to longer wave band, fetched a series of significant gain, the outstanding achievement that and current density of room temperature threshold value was obtained around 4.6 μm wavelengh recently breaks world record (lower better) . I come from this school physics to fasten in the first student of OU, besides experimental research achievement, still made very outstanding academic research, when graduation by the United States unit of two countries research eagerly invite applications for a job. Additional explicit OU, we developed two new research way: The cascade between the belt is infra-red detector and parts of an apparatus of smooth hot season, won the support that studies fund federally, obtained encouraging preliminary positive result. Also encountered the difficulty that expect is less than and challenge of course. For instance, time is divided up more fragments, student fluidity is great and degree often differs further. So, new environment brought new challenge, the good luck that is the same as stylish also be pregnant with among them. Graph 3 Professor Yang Ruiqing professors and student and co-worker are in lab take a photo as a souvenir (2014) 4 thinking and impressions review     these experience, in study and research work, what is crucial it is important to mix? Below most circumstance, professional domain direction and the option that study a task should take first place. If professional way is wrong, turn “ no scope to exercise one's abilities into possibly ” ; And research task choice is undeserved, the result does not have much great sense, also do not have the value that uses actually, published article besides fool keep up appearance of the luggage outside fooling, with waste paper as good as, wasted time and resource. So how to choose, what is significant and valuable, how judge? Let us discuss the option of professional direction first. Physics is the foundation of a lot of course, to logistic thinking, analysis and the education that solve problem ability are very good. But the development of on the course hundred years, a lot of branch of physics are quite mature, some already passed fastigium, was developed a lot of years like a mineral resources, the baby that keep is not much, also do not need so much person to be reclaimed on those traditional way. It is so after physical undergraduate course or graduate student phase, will tell to most person, turn to be mixed related to physics applied domain, not only perspective is more wide, and be well worth doing. I myself am the adjustment that does after obtaining physics doctor's degree, consider the rhythm of modern society is accelerated, arrive more from the back change is more difficult, to some people, in young when adjust as early as possible should some more appropriate. Specific choice what direction, the interest interest that wants basis individual and the case at that time make relatively long-term analysis and plan. Issue discussion that chooses to studying a task to be able to be opposite probably this problem somewhat enlightenment. How choosing to study a task with judge is hard to make each satisfactory, particularly right basic research controversy will be more. Quite one part basic research is to stem from curiosity drive, initial stage does not know or not clear future has how old value or application. But to great majority research character, the choice of the task and judge ought to depend on can arise finally why to be planted useful knowledge and value, apply actually and solve the degree of real problem. This that is to say, research achievement should be in finally can withstand examines, although have some of basic research,the likelihood should be passed for a long time. This kind of judge also is not complete decide by expert of person of the same trade, because to protect respective industry the interest is mixed between the person of the same trade,living always is not just. Here the circumstance falls, tripartite is potential perhaps the participation of the user should be indispensible, also be helpful. This is meant, the choice of the project wants the conception self-identity at the person of the same trade not only, also want to strive for pair of other spheres to be promoted somewhat. This requirement researcher has long-term vision and insight, understand the application of other industry and requirement, can cooperate to it. To the research of photoelectricity parts of an apparatus from academic physics experience let the author experience theory and actual application photograph are united in wedlock, interdisciplinary cooperative benefit. Choose in research to in, I not the tendency, also not be good at making task of “ heat ” , feel too crowded, already collected so much clever person, also cannot catch up with anyhow hard. Accordingly, I am willing to consider those returning to do not have what person attention more, but the research task that has potential significance and applied perspective. It is more difficult that such task does not study than the physics of rationalism, I feel it is some easier to be returned normally. But the understanding that asks investigator has development to involved physical mechanism, learn interdisciplinary knowledge, and the requirement of understanding application. Firm in the begining, may very alone, support of it doesn't matter, also do not have applause, the likelihood still can have only then makings not as good as the setback that goes up with blame technology on the technology. But, wanting physical principle only is right, hold on, overcome difficulty likely to score ultimate success. Of course, carry gas also is important sometimes. Of IPL safety glasses of the cascade between the belt put forward and developed to reflect the basic research from original concept to practical technology and commercial product just about a such quite long processes. Between this, basic research and technical development mutual across and promote. Basic research can produce the breakthrough of anticipation giving a person and new technology, technical development is begun with what asked to also make relevant basic research and thorough. What need to remind an attention additionally is, to having the research that uses foreground, the technology is commercialized, although be a target, do not be in certainly any phase may go benignantly, involve prematurely probable it is to have damage.
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